CNL 2012

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Practical applications of controlled natural language with description logics and OWL. FluentEditor and OASE.

Paweł Kapłański and Paweł Zarzycki, Cognitum

FluentEditor for OWL is comprehensive tool for editing and manipulating complex ontologies using Controlled Natural Language. Fluent editor provides alternative to XML-based OWL editors that is better suitable for human users. Its main feature is using Controlled English as a knowledge modeling language. Supported via Predictive Editor prohibits one to enter any sentence that is not grammatically or morphologically correct and actively help the user during sentence writing. The Controlled English is a subset of Standard English with restricted grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce the ambiguity and complexity inherent in full English. Ontology-Aided Software Engineering (OASE) is a semiotic framework for software development. It extends the existing methodologies with an ability to express the supporting knowledge in (controlled) natural language called OASE-English.

Leveraging Attempto Controlled English for flexible software development with EulerGUI

Jean-Marc Vanel, Déductions SARL

We show open sources tools based on these extreme principles: 1) no business logic outside of ontologies and rules; 2) no business data outside of Semantic Web documents and databases. This approach simplifies architecture compared to the common practices of generating source code of classes from ontologies, and using ORM (Object Relational Mapping). It can be called rule-based and semantic web based software development. And not having the business logic hard-coded simplifies maintenance and accelerates software updates. Using forward chaining inference engine and various translators, it's as if the ACE sentences were interpreted in real time to bring consequences up-to-date. EulerGUI is an open source turntable that imports many data formats, models and rules, and incorporates several inference engines, based on data formats of the Semantic Web. It is both a development environment, and a Java API to build applications around an inference engine. It leverages Drools rule engine for an easy integration with Java platform, while allowing for a strict separation of business logic and infrastructure code.

Jeebox: An extensible language for describing code, concepts and stories.

Theodore H. Smith, ElfData, London UK

Jeebox is aimed at being able to describe anything that can be described by natural language. Jeebox can represent the syntactics and semantics in the original English text. Jeebox is extensible, and therefor can describe concepts in any language without worrying about the grammar of the language. Jeebox also has a simple syntax that, for coders at least, should be easy-to-use. This is unlike some controlled-natural-language systems where it can be hard to find the right way to describe certain concepts. Jeebox is also homo-iconic (it can describe it's own syntax tree). Jeebox can also describe programming code, including it's own code, and is designed to be a natural fit for creating an artificial-intelligence.


Querying the Semantic Web with the help of a SQUALL-to-SPARQL translator

Sébastien Ferré, Université de Rennes, France

SQUALL, a Semantic Query and Update High-Level Language, is a CNL with a strong adequacy with RDF, and with an expressiveness close to SPARQL 1.1. The demo will show how SQUALL can be used to query RDF repositories, like DPpedia, through the help of a SQUALL-to-SPARQL translator available as a web form (see

Multilingual AceWiki

Kaarel Kaljurand, University of Zurich

The demo shows a generalization of AceWiki currently under development in the MOLTO project. AceWiki has been extended to allow multilingual CNL input and editing, driven by multiple Grammatical Framework grammars.


Kaarel Kaljurand, University of Zurich

Arvutaja is an Android app that supports Estonian voice commands for querying maps, performing unit conversion and arithmetical calculations, and setting of alarms and timers. All the commands are defined by a Grammatical Framework grammar.

Reasoning with numbers in Attempto Controlled English

Norbert E. Fuchs, University of Zurich

Attempto Controlled English (ACE) admits numbers as determiners and as constituents of arithmetic expressions and formulas. The demo will show how one can reason with numbers occurring in ACE texts.

Coral: Corpus Access in Controlled Language

Tobias Kuhn, Yale University

This demo presents Coral, an interface in which complex corpus queries can be expressed in a controlled natural language. With the help of a predictive editor, users can compose queries and submit them to the Coral system, which then automatically translates them into formal query statements. In this way, complex corpora of annotated texts can be accessed without the need to learn a complicated formal query language.

CNLs for multilingual queries in MOLTO

Olga Caprotti, University of Gothenburg
Milen Chechev, Ontotext
Ramona Enache, University of Gothenburg
Meritxell Gonzalez, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Aarne Ranta, University of Gothenburg
Jordi Saludes, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

MOLTO - Multilingual Online Translations is an EU project targeting the production of tools for high quality translations of online materials. The demo includes the ongoing work on using the grammar formalism GF with semantic web technologies for building an information retrieval system accessed via multilingual queries. The central result is a library for query primitives available in 5 languages that was furthermore used to develop queries for the PROTON ontology and for the biomedical patents domain. Further CNLs under consideration in MOLTO come from the domains of mathematics, business processes, and cultural heritage.