Attempto Controlled English Language, Tools and Applications
Exercises 2

The following assignments cover the ACE vocabulary, construction rules and interpretation rules.



ACE vocabulary consists of function words and content words.

Missing words

Unknown word guessing

Imagine that ACE is not supported by a content word lexicon and has to guess the part-of-speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) of the content words on the basis of the surrounding function words in the text. E.g. a good indication for nouns is that they are preceded by a determiner ('every', 'a', 'some', ...). Come up with a few ACE sentence for which this kind of guessing doesn't work (i.e. it cannot be done with 100% certainty).

Construction Rules


Constructing ACE texts


Constructing ACE phrases


Which of the following texts belong to ACE?

Assume that all content words are known to ACE. In case you decide that the text is in ACE provide also the classification of content words into the classes of 'noun', 'verb', etc.

Translate from English to ACE

... and make the meaning of the sentences precise.

Which of the following sentence patterns does ACE support?

Interpretation Rules


Describe how ACE handles English ambiguity. (Hint: there are 3 basic principles.)

Discuss the following English sentences. In what sense are they ambiguous? How does ACE handle this ambiguity?

What is the (semantic) difference between the ACE sentences?

Anaphoric references

Do the following statements hold?

Describe how are the anaphors resolved in the following sentences.

Come up with ACE texts which would cause the ACE parser to output the following error messages.

Norbert E. Fuchs, Kaarel Kaljurand {fuchs,kalju}